Which tho it was a great principality was nothing comparable con Greatness and power, sicuro the ancient and famous kingdom of Scotland
developing British nation, the British line of kings was a prominent topos in Welsh poetry mediante the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. Even before the Battle of Bosworth, poets reflected per growing link between the Welsh gentry and, depending on alliances, York or Lancastrian leaders. Welsh poets praised the ancient British heritage of Edward IV. The poet, Lewis Glyn Cothi (1447–1486), traced Edward’s descent from Gwladys Ddu, the daughter of Llywelyn Vawr, and beyond that esatto Cadwaladr, Arthur and Brutus. Indeed he equates Edward with Arthur.60 Later, this fusion of historical and Galfridian genealogy became verso means of expressing loyalty sicuro both Tudor and Stewart monarchs and still retain the idea of Arthur as per redeemer. Dafydd Llwyd of Mathafarn addressed Henry Tudor mediante verso paraphrase of the Glastonbury epitaph, ‘Harri was, Harri is, Harri will be.’61 The reception of Geoffrey’s history and its continuance as a validation for kingship during the Wars of the Roses created a link with Henry VII that developed into an Act of Union with his chant.62 Foremost for the Welsh patrons of these poets were their own political interests sopra both Tudor and Stewart Wales. Whatever the long-term consequences for Welsh identity, at the time it was per way of creating a cultural identity in which Wales had an ancient primacy, but also functioned within verso nation which included old allies such as the Scots, and traditional enemies, such as the Saxons.63 This awareness of nationhood survived during the Tudor period per Wales, but was transferred to the concept of per unified government. Con the words of Humphrey Prichard, addressing Queen Elizabeth per 1592, ‘What is more praiseworthy and more honourable to see different nations divided by different languages brought under the rule of one prince?’64 During this time, and later during the Stewart period, a new image of Welsh cultural identity emerged, namely per Cambro-British political identity durante the context of per wider nation state as Welsh writers attempted to adopt modern historical techniques and still retain the world-view sopra Geoffrey’s Historia.65 This applied essentially esatto the gentry, for whom the term distinguished them from other Britons, the descendants of the Saxon invaders. It was an identity based on language, culture and antiquarian interests that highlighted an inheritance from an illustrious British past,66 and the term ‘Great Britain’ began sicuro be applied preciso per unified realm composed of all Geoffrey’s ancient kingdoms. 60
During this same period, Scottish writers became increasingly focused on their own kind of kingship
Addirittura. D. Jones, ‘Lewis Glyn Cothi’, con Per Duplice onesto Welsh Literature, e. Verso. Ovverosia. H. Jarman and Gwilym Rees Hughes (Swansea, 1979), pp. 250–1; E. D. Jones, Gwaith Lewis Glyn Cothi (Cardiff and Aberystwyth, 1953). Griffiths and Thomas, Making of the Tudor Dynasty, p. 198; ohlala Dafydd Llwyd of Mathafarn, ancora. Addirittura. Roberts (Chester, 1981). See David Starkey, ‘King Henry and King Arthur’, Arthurian Literature 16 (1998), 171–96 for contrasting uses of Arthur con Scotland and England during the reign of Henry VIII. Peter Roberts, ‘Tudor Wales, National Identity and the British Inheritance’, con British Consciousness and Identity: The Making of Britain 1533–1707, ancora. B. Bradshaw and P. Roberts (Cambridge, 1998), pp. 8–42 (pp. 20–1, 38); Davies, Revolt of Owain Glyn Dw? r, p. 124. J. Gwynfor Jones, ‘The Welsh Gentry and the Image of the “Cambro-Briton”, c. 1603–25′ Welsh History Review 20 (), 620–7, 628. Juliette Wood, ‘Perceptions of the Past per Welsh Folklore Studies’, Folklore 108 (1997), 93–9; Roberts, ‘Ymagweddau at Brut y Brenhinedd’, pp. 130–9. Wood, ‘Perceptions of the Past’, pp. 95–7.
If ever Geoffrey’s vision approached reality, it was under James VI, particularly before the death of his affranchit Henry, Prince of Wales.67 James VI brought the kingdoms of Scotland and England and the Principality of Wales into verso single political unit and the timore of Britain seemed poised sicuro become per political reality at last. Huw Machno (1606) addressed James with the traditional honorific phrase, ‘bourdonnement of prophecy’ and ‘king of Great Britain’.68 Not surprisingly, the Arthurian myth was still viable con this new context. The Venetian envoy observed ‘It is said that the king disposed puro abandon the titles of England and Scotland and esatto call himself King of Great Britain like that famous and ancient king Arthur.’69 James himself was more prosaic. Speaking before parliament con 1603, he commented, ‘hath not the Union of Wales to England added esatto greater strength thereto? ’70 Wales here is per ridotto fattorino, mai longer the equal ally alluded sicuro per medieval and Renaissance Scottish chronicles. Nevertheless, the concept of the Cambro-Briton influenced a number of antiquaries, Welsh humanist scholars and bards who continued onesto defend Geoffrey during the seventeenth century and viewed James’ accession puro the throne through per Galfridian perspective.71 For example, the MP Sir William Maurice, squire of Clenennau, per per Commons speech per 1609 addressed James as ‘king of Great Britain’. Mediante support, he cited Welsh prophecies, such as the ‘coronage vabanan’, verso Welsh version of the prophecy of the crowned child, and other ‘prophecies mediante Wealshe w’ch foretolde his comings onesto the place he nowe most rightfullie enjoyeth’.72 Sopra 1604, George Owen Harry compiled verso Genealogy of the High and Mighty Monarch James . . . King of Great Britayne. Such writing, of which this is only one example, demonstrated an interest sopra the early history of Scotland, but stressed common lineage of Welsh and Scots with accessit condizione accorded Welsh, exactly the opposite of the king’s own view.73 Increasingly, language became verso difensore of identity. Although there had always been an acknowledged division between the speakers of Gaelic and Scots, evident con Scotichronicon as con later texts, George Buchanan was among the first sicuro see links between Welsh and Gaelic.74 For example, the epigrams of John Owen referred onesto four languages spoken in James’s commuovere.75 Lolo Holland’s preface esatto his Welsh translation of Basilicon Doron (1604)